What is Molecular Biology?
Molecular biology techniques is an approach to understanding biological functions at the molecular level such as nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates. In addition to advances in understanding genetic machinery and its regulation, molecular biologists continue to make fundamental discoveries about the structure and function of cells and the mechanisms of genetic transmission.
What is Molecular Genetics?
Molecular genetics is a field that studies the function and structure of genes in molecular form by using genetic and molecular biology techniques. The function of this method is to find out about genetic variations, mutations, and offspring by conducting experiments on the chromosomes and genes of the organism. This study can be carried out for developments in understanding to treat genetic diseases.
What is the integration between Molecular Genetics and Molecular Biology?
The study to continue the process of molecular biologists requires the integration of scientific knowledge such as physics, genetics, microbiology, and others. Tools of Genetic engineering and DNA technology are very important parts of the advancement of molecular biology techniques. Because with this molecular medicine and biotechnology can bring progress regarding the clinical and social fields.
Advances in molecular biology and molecular genetics have achieved good developments such as disease healing mechanisms, immunological responses, and evolution. Intensive fields of study by molecular biology include the process of DNA replication, DNA repair, and changes in DNA base sequence. And the mechanism of exchange of genetic material such as control of small segments of DNA such as plasmids, transposable elements, and transposons to obtain recombinant DNA. But all of that requires genetic tools to support better development.
What are the tools of Molecular Biology techniques?
This is an important molecular tools from the of genetic engineering tools list that are often used by scientists:
Plasmid Molecular Devices
Small pieces of circular DNA that are not part of the bacterial genome are called Plasmids but are capable of self-replicating. Plasmids in genetic engineering this is used as a vector to transport genes between microorganisms. After the desired gene is amplified by PCR, the gene and plasmid are cut off by restriction enzymes and bound together. The resulting combination is known as recombinant DNA. Plasmids are important in biotechnology because they are force bacteria to maintain and produce DNA for antibiotics.
DNA Ligase Molecular
DNA ligase can create covalent bonds between nucleotide chains. That is done to make recombinant strands, or to close circular strands that have been cut by restriction enzymes. The DNA polymerase I enzyme and the polynucleotide kinase is also important for filling gaps or phosphorylation.
Gel electrophoresis helps describe the size and type of DNA extracted using PCR and restriction enzymes. An electrophoretic gel is useful for purifying DNA from cell culture, or cutting it using restriction enzymes will not be very useful if we can not visualize DNA. This is also used to detect DNA insertion and KO.
The discovery of endonuclease restriction enzymes is very important for protein engineering. This enzyme cuts DNA in certain locations. With varying sizes, DNA fragments with restriction enzymes produce many smaller fragments. These can only be separated using gel electrophoresis or chromatography.
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
The process of replicating many desired gene copies is called the Polymerase Chain Reaction. The discovery of thermostable DNA polymerases, such as Taq Polymerase, has been able to manipulate DNA replication in the laboratory. DNA replication strengthens the number of Primary DNA segments that are used to identify the desired genes and replicate them.
The discovery of DNS structures and techniques for DNA modification is an option for scientists to develop genetic manipulations for organisms. Molecular tools are used to manipulate microorganisms. With the tools mentioned above it is possible to use microorganisms as bio reactors in food, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and environmentally friendly processes. Molecular tools for genetic engineering tools list can also identify recombinant microorganisms such as the recombinant DNA method that is usually followed to engineer microorganisms.